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Early Indians

review Early Indians Early Indians free read Ý 9 Tony Joseph ç 9 summary Who are we Indians Where did we come from Many of us believe our ancestors have lived in South Asia since 'time immemorial' But as it turns out 'time immemorial' may not have been all that long ago To tell us the story of our ancestry journalist Tony Joseph goes 65000 years into the past when a band of modern humans or Homo sapiens first made their way from Africa into the Indian subcontinent Citing recent DNA evidence he traces the subseuent large migrations of modern humans into India of agric. Everyone in our subcontinent Pakistanis Indians Bangladeshis please read EARLY INDIANS by Tony Joseph Understand where we re coming from how rich and diverse our roots are and how superficial our divisions are And it s all based on scientific evidence not ideological wishful thinking

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review Early Indians Early Indians free read Ý 9 Tony Joseph ç 9 summary Ulturalists from Iran between 7000 and 3000 BCE and pastoralists from the Central Asian Steppe between 2000 and 1000 BCE among others As Joseph unravels our history using the results of genetic and other research he takes head on some of the most controversial and uncomfortable uestions of Indian history Who were the Harappans Did the 'Aryans' really migrate to India Are North Indians genetically different from South Indians And are the various castes genetically distinct groups This book relies. There is an image of the famous dancing girl of Harappa on the cover of this book as a nod perhaps to common knowledge that Early Indians for most of us refers to the Harappan Civilization Then we are told came the Aryans who somehow settled peacefully or not with the Harappans Think of it have you ever asked yourself where did the Harappans come from The author tries to answer this rather grand uestion in 230 pages Starting almost 300000 years ago with the evolution of man this breathless book attempts to combine everything that is happening in the world of ancient DNA archaeology and linguistics to answer the uestion who were the Early Indians and where or how the hell did they get here That the book is up to date is an understatement There are references to papers from 2018 conjuring in me the image of Tony Joseph running to the press with yet another update as the exasperated printer looks annoyed But happily for us readers every scrap of development included seems important We are just not used to history working this way and this is exciting the field of Ancient DNA is answering important uestions about history at a pace that makes historians look like astronauts It tells us that the first humans out of Africa came to India some 65000 years ago This of course makes Harappans look positively modern and then goes on to tell the story of Early Indians in a rather comprehensive manner for such a slim book Constantly digressing to provide primers on subjects such as mitochondrial DNA and Linguistic archaeology this ambitious book though not exactly a romping read nevertheless constructs an edifice that adds to the history of sub continent I suspect this is not the end of the line for such books and we will see many that will tackle the same subject but this is the first I ve read My only criticism of the book is just that it isn t a romping enough read I wish Tony Joseph had brought to the writing of this book the same ability to tell a story he so brilliantly possesses in book discussions That gap for a book that could be classified as popular history might alas reduce its audience Besides this one observation I totally recommend this book to anyone who reads Indian history After We Collided pastoralists from the Central Asian Steppe between 2000 and 1000 BCE among others As Joseph unravels our history using the results of genetic and other research he takes head on some of the most controversial and uncomfortable uestions of Indian history Who were the Harappans Did the 'Aryans' really migrate to India Are North Indians genetically different from South Indians And are the various castes genetically distinct groups This book relies. There is an image of the famous dancing girl of Harappa on the cover of this book as a nod Die Herrenschneiderei perhaps to common knowledge that Early Indians for most of us refers to the Harappan Civilization Then we are told came the Aryans who somehow settled Calling Cards: Uncover Your Calling peacefully or not with the Harappans Think of it have you ever asked yourself where did the Harappans come from The author tries to answer this rather grand uestion in 230 Cities of God The Real Story of How Christianity Became an Urban Movement and Conuered Rome pages Starting almost 300000 years ago with the evolution of man this breathless book attempts to combine everything that is happening in the world of ancient DNA archaeology and linguistics to answer the uestion who were the Early Indians and where or how the hell did they get here That the book is up to date is an understatement There are references to Gravity's Rainbow papers from 2018 conjuring in me the image of Tony Joseph running to the Daisy Malone and the Blue Glowing Stone press with yet another update as the exasperated Pretend God Is Deaf printer looks annoyed But happily for us readers every scrap of development included seems important We are just not used to history working this way and this is exciting the field of Ancient DNA is answering important uestions about history at a Cased Images Tintypes KwikGuide pace that makes historians look like astronauts It tells us that the first humans out of Africa came to India some 65000 years ago This of course makes Harappans look Las Puertas Del Amor positively modern and then goes on to tell the story of Early Indians in a rather comprehensive manner for such a slim book Constantly digressing to Discoveries Voodoo Search for the Spirit Discoveries Abrams provide A Fire Within: Sekret Machines Series, Book 2 primers on subjects such as mitochondrial DNA and Linguistic archaeology this ambitious book though not exactly a romping read nevertheless constructs an edifice that adds to the history of sub continent I suspect this is not the end of the line for such books and we will see many that will tackle the same subject but this is the first I ve read My only criticism of the book is just that it isn t a romping enough read I wish Tony Joseph had brought to the writing of this book the same ability to tell a story he so brilliantly Idenics possesses in book discussions That gap for a book that could be classified as Night Owl Loonette The Big Comfy Couch popular history might alas reduce its audience Besides this one observation I totally recommend this book to anyone who reads Indian history

Tony Joseph ç 9 summary

review Early Indians Early Indians free read Ý 9 Tony Joseph ç 9 summary Heavily on path breaking DNA research of recent years But it also presents earlier archaeological and linguistic evidence all in an entertaining and highly readable manner A hugely significant book Early Indians authoritatively and bravely puts to rest several ugly debates on the ancestry of modern Indians It not only shows us how the modern Indian population came to be composed as it is but also reveals an undeniable and important truth about who we are we are all migrants And we are all mixed. Two terms that refer to linguistic groups are widely misunderstood in India and taken to be racial denominators that split the country into two demographic zones in the north and the south We know them as Aryan and Dravidian The former is broadly associated with the north and the latter with the south commonly in the state of Tamil Nadu Scholars are divided on the issue of paternity of the Harappan Civilization 2500 1900 BCE that marked the foundation of later socio religious development in India A few scholars argue that Harappa was made possible by Aryan effort and the Vedic literature was composed there Dravidian scholars indignantly claim that the Harappan culture was a Dravidian one which was destroyed by the Aryans who then set the inhabitants on an exodus to the south Literary archeological and epigraphic evidence could not break the stalemate even now This book comes up with genetic data to finally decide what is what Tony Joseph is a columnist and contributor to leading newspapers and magazines He is also a former editor of Businessworld No formal training in history or archeology is mentioned in any of the personal introductions of the author found onlineJoseph banks on the recently acuired ability of scientific establishment to successfully extract and analyse DNA from ancient fossils and map its genome This helps to compare it with modern DNA and find out the era in which they diverged genetically It has also produced some truly astounding conclusions It is gratifying to learn that DNA evidence is conclusive that humans originated in Africa and all of them now living outside that continent are descendants of a single population of migrants who moved out of Africa to Asia around 70000 years ago A group among them reached India too and the author calls them First Indians They mixed with later entrants but serve as bedrock of genetic ancestry to all modern Indians But there are closer direct descendants to them with little mixing with later societies The Onge tribe in Little Andamans numbering about 100 souls is the closest relative of the First Indians However the author suggests to Indians a simple method to physically view the other descendants of the First Indians look at a mirror Genetic data brings to light interesting facts about the ancestry of modern Indians 70 90 per cent of people in the current Indian population originated from a single woman among the First Indians who arrived 65000 years ago while only 10 40 per cent can trace their descent to a single man in that society This means that most of the later migrations were sexually biased towards the maleIndia witnessed further migrations but the author identifies the influx of Iranian agriculturists from the Zagros Mountains in 7000 3000 BCE as the first notable wave after the event that happened 65000 years ago These people Joseph calls them Dravidians introduced the art of agriculture in India The earliest agricultural experiment took place in a 200 hectare area in the remote village of Mehrgarh in Balochistan around 7000 2600 BCE The next wave occurred in the interval 2000 1000 BCE Multiple waves of steppe pastoralists calling themselves Aryans from central Asia brought Indo European languages and new cultural practices to south Asia If the author is to be believed these two migrations account for the ancestry of 95 per cent of the modern Indian population Scientific studies repeatedly show that the genetic imprint of the First Indians is carried by all castes and tribes of the country in all regions and all linguistic groups This is uniue to India in the world The author is careful not to antagonize powerful public opinion Instead of using misnomers like Aryan and Dravidian he uses expressions such as Ancestral North Indians ANI and Ancestral South Indians ASI where in fact he should have plainly stated that we are the result of the admixture of the First Indians and West Eurasians seen in varying percentages among the two groupsThis book upholds the scholarly consensus that Aryans did not destroy the Harappan Civilization During 1900 1300 BCE in the Late Harappan period the civilization declined and eventually disappeared This was primarily due to unusually long spells of drought probably caused by changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulations This severely affected other civilizations in Egypt West Asia and China as well The prolonged drought ultimately made monsoonal rivers go dry or become seasonal affecting habitability along their courses There is no archeological evidence that the Aryans destroyed the Harappan Civilization On the other hand there are ample indicators that they merged into it This is clear from the reducing discrepancy between the Vedic texts and Harappan Civilization over time The later the Vedic text there is likelihood of finding connections to Harappan cultural heritage The author also lists out a few examples In another section he argues that after 2000 BCE when the Late Harappan Civilization was already in decline steppe pastoralists who took Indo European languages to Europe reached India bringing with them an early version of Sanskrit and related cultural concepts and practices such as ritual sacrifices These newly arrived Indo European language speakers called themselves Aryans p142Contrary to the claims of the Dravidian political movement that they are the original inhabitants of India this book affirms that they too have come to India as migrants but a few millennia before the Aryans did Dravidian languages show clear linguistic affinity to the Elamite language spoken in ancient Iran This book makes a delightful comparison of ten common words in Proto Elamite and modern Dravidian languages which are strikingly similar Joseph surmises that a band of herders from southern and central Zagros region migrated to south Asia as speakers of the Proto Elamite language sometime after 7000 BCE mixed with the First Indians and this new mixed population sparked an agricultural revolution in the north western region of India and then went on to create the Harappan Civilization over the next few millennia p136 Hence it is definitely DravidianThe author makes a cursory analysis of the caste system and arrives at a year in which it solidified with an exercise that is mostly conjecture Aryans originated in the Eurasian steppes around 2500 BCE as seen by the presence of haplogroup R1a among the ancient DNA collected from these regions Many Indians still carry this uniue variation in their DNA This R1a group is reported to be having about twice as high an incidence rate among Brahmins than other lower castes Genetic studies show extensive admixture between different Indian populations between 2200 BCE and 100 CE This is indicative of exogamy and absence of endogamous castes The mixing came to an abrupt end sometime around 100 CE It is guessed that a new ideology which had gained ground and power imposed on the society new social restrictions and a new way of life possibly in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Mauryan Empire The caste system had arrived in this way and the author mocks that it cut the country into tukdetukde pieces borrowing the vocabulary of television news channel discussions in 2018The book s content is very logically argued and pleasing to read However it relies too much on genetics research papers that have not yet received wide acceptance Joseph himself admits that such papers often show contradictory findings p11 He also concedes that even in the most professional of settings personal preferences can play a part in how research findings are interpreted p11 Judging from the author s remarks in the book it is fairly evident that he has built an edifice that harbours his pre existing convictions on the genetic development of Indian populations The research that had gone into the text does not appear to be so deep as some best seller books such as Harari s Sapiens are listed as references and material for further reading All in all this book is a good effort to buttress the left liberal outlook of Indian history It is by no means impartialThe book is highly recommended

  • Hardcover
  • 256
  • Early Indians
  • Tony Joseph
  • English
  • 19 June 2018
  • 9789386228987